Wednesday , August 21 2019

Chloramphenicol

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Description

The active substance of Chloramphenicol is a synthetically obtained antibiotic, which is similar to antibacterial substances synthesized by streptomycetes. Its antibacterial action is realized through the process of peptidyl transferase’s inhibition after binding of the active substance to the ribosomal apparatus of the cell. As a result, a synthetic process of protein production in the cell of sensitive microorganisms is blocked, which leads to their death.

 

Indications for Use

 

Parenteral and oral forms of the drug Chloramphenicol are prescribed in the following cases:

 

 Typhoid fever;

 Tularemia;

 Pathologies associated with yersinia;

 Paratyphoid infection;

 Pathologies associated with meningococci;

 Dysenteric infection;

 Trachoma;

 Infection of the urinary tract;

 Salmonellosis;

 Lymphogranuloma in the groin;

 Wound infection with a purulent discharge;

 Infectious pathologies associated with rickettsia;

 Abscess of cerebral tissues;

 Purulent peritonitis;

 Chlamydia;

 Erlichiosis;

 Infection of bile ducts;

 Brucellosis.

 

External forms of the medication are prescribed in cases of skin lesions with bacterial agents (boils, burns complicated by infection, trophic ulcers, decubitus lesions, nipple cracks of nursing mothers). Eye drops are indicated for the treatment of infections in ophthalmology.

 

Mode of Application

 

Tablets or capsules are administered 30 minutes before the meal. If you have nausea or vomiting, you can take pills 60 minutes after the meal. The daily dose is 2-4 g, and this amount should be divided into 4 doses.

 

Side Effects

 

The use of Chloramphenicol may be accompanied by the following adverse reactions:

 

 Dyspeptic phenomena;

 Psychomotor disorders;

 Leucopenia;

 Depressive conditions;

 Urge to vomit;

 Dermatitis;

 Thrombocytopenia;

 Seizures of nausea;

 Hypogammaglobulinemia;

 Headache;

 Hallucinations (visual, audial);

 Diarrhea;

 Agranulocytosis;

 Angioedema;

 Cardiovascular collapse (may occur for children up to 12 months);

 Hearing impairment;

 Irritation of the oral mucosa;

 Visual impairment;

 Change of consciousness;

 Aplastic anemia;

 Delirium;

 Dysbacteriosis;

 Skin rash;

 Change in taste perception;

 Urticaria;

 Fungal infection;

 Neuritis of the optic nerve;

 Itching of the skin;

 Flushing of the skin.

 

To avoid and minimize the side effects, you should consult your healthcare provider before starting the treatment.

 

Contraindications

 

Chloramphenicol is not prescribed when a patient has some of the following conditions:

 

 Hypersensitivity to Chloramphenicol;

 Psoriasis;

 Intermittent porphyria in acute form;

 Eczema;

 Pathologies of the skin associated with fungal infection;

 Kidney pathologies with pronounced impairment of their functions;

 Pathologies of hematopoiesis.

 

Caution is necessary when prescribing Chloramphenicol to patients who have:

 

 Pathologies of the cardiovascular system;

 

Propensity to develop allergic reactions.

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